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Preference and satisfaction towards mobile service providers: A comparative study of rural and urban consumers


Gagandeep Banga, Babita Kumar and Money Dhingra



Indian Journal of Economics and Development
Year : 2012, Volume : 8, Issue : 4
First page : ( 13) Last page : ( 28)
Print ISSN : 2277-5412.

A temporal analysis of research investment at Punjab Agricultural University

Kaur Amanpreet1, Sharma J.L., Chahal S.S.
Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004


JEL Classification: Q16, R42

Online published on 1 August, 2013.

The present study was conducted to examine the research investment by PAU on crops and enterprises in Punjab. In order to achieve the stipulated objectives of the study the data on research investment was compiled from Budgets of Punjab Agricultural University for last 25 years 1985–86 to 2009–10. The results show that annual average research investment has increased over time. Whereas growth analysis indicated that growth rate dropped down to 1.74 per cent per annum in Period III (2003–04 to 2009–10). Thus, there is need to provide more resources to PAU to conduct research in various field of development. Further, it was observed that the share of non-plan agricultural schemes to research budget has increased whereas share of all the other schemes has shown decline during the study period and state government remained key sources of funding for the research work done at PAU. The ICAR ranked second, but it is losing its ground with passage of time. An analysis of research investment on different crops by Punjab Agricultural University indicated that research efforts remained confined to wheat and rice. In the case of enterprises it was observed that research investment by PAU skewed in the favour of mushroom.

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