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Characterization of Crop Livestock Integrated System in Sub Mountainous Zone of Punjab


D.S. Rana and P. Kataria



Indian Journal of Economics and Development
Year : 2016, Volume : 12, Issue : 4
First page : ( 629) Last page : ( 640)
Print ISSN : 2277-5412. Online ISSN : 2322-0430.
Article DOI : 10.5958/2322-0430.2016.00186.4

Characterization of Crop Livestock Integrated System in Sub Mountainous Zone of Punjab

Rana D.S., Kataria P.*
Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 001, India

*Corresponding author email:

JEL Codes: O10, O13, O20, Q10, Y20

Online published on 12 December, 2016.

Crop and livestock is an integral part of production system of the Sub Mountainous Zone of Punjab state. The region is primarily rainfedwith undulating topography and is characterized by large number of production and socio-economic problems. The present study was conducted to characterize the present crop-livestock production system in the sub-mountainous zone. In order to accomplish the stipulated objectives of the study, primary data were collected from 240 respondents proportionately distributed over three land holding categories namely small (10 acres), from 6 blocks of Hoshiarpur and Roopnagar district representing the zone. The cultivable land constituted about 70 per cent of the total land holdings on small (4.28 acres) and medium farms (9.93 acres) with respective cropping intensity of 174 and 158 per cent. On large farms, the cultivable land constituted 90 per cent of the total (21.58 acres) with cropping intensity of only 122 per cent. The adult cattle unit per farm were minimum on small farms (4.11), and maximum on large farms (6.13). All the cross bred cattle were of improved breed, but in case of buffaloes it constituted 27 per cent only. The purpose of rearing livestock is to earn additional income and impart economic stability to the farming system against risk arising out of crop failures due to natural calamities or damage by stray or wild animals. In the crop-livestock integrated system the share of income from livestock farming was the lowest on large farms (4.2 per cent) and the highest on small farms (35.2 per cent). In the net family income, there was inverse relationship between the income earned from crop livestock integrated system and off farm earnings. The respective share of income earned on small farms was41.2 and 57.9 per cent, whereas on large farms it was 82.1 and 17.4 per cent in the same order. The analysis has conclusively brought about the importance of off- farm sources of employment in the livelihood security of this oft-neglected region of Punjab, the forerunner in agricultural development of the nation.

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