Employment in multinational fast food retail outlets in Punjab


Pratibha Goyal, Mini Goyal and Sukhmani



Indian Journal of Economics and Development
Year : 2013, Volume : 9, Issue : 1
First page : ( 22) Last page : ( 31)
Print ISSN : 2277-5412.

Financial viability of different sized layer farms in Punjab

Singh Varinder Pal*, Sharma V. K.**, Kingra H.S.***
*Assistant Professor (Livestock Economics), College of Dairy Science & Technology, GADVASU, Ludhiana

**Senior Economist, Department of Economics and Sociology, PAU, Ludhiana

***Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Sociology, PAU, Ludhiana. Email:

JEL Classification: Q12

Online published on 1 August, 2013.

The present study was conducted to examine the financial viability of different sized layer farms in Punjab. The results of the study showed that the cage system was the most popular housing system and it was fast replacing the deep litter system. A majority of the farmers had received specialized training in poultry farming and practiced poultry farming as a main occupation. There was a direct relationship between total fixed investments per bird and the farm size. The investment in layer farming was found to be most profitable in the case of large farms. The small layer farms were highly sensitive to increase in costs and decrease in net returns.